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    2022年英語專業八級真題聽力 Mini-lecture(3)

    來源:可可英語 編輯:Magi ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
      


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    And ethnography, a subfield of cultural anthropology, is, on the whole, the systematic description of human societies, mostly based on gathering the firsthand information about something in a real, natural environment rather than inner place study, such as a laboratory or classroom.

    人種學是文化人類學的一個分支領域,總體來說,是對人類社會的系統性描述,主要基于在某一真實自然環境中收集到的關于某物的第一手信息,而非實驗室或教室等室內研究。

    Based on ethnographies, anthropologists can provide explanations of the behavior of different peoples.

    基于人種學,人類學家可以對不同民族的行為作出解釋。

    Let me also mention very briefly psychological anthropology, which deals with human personality and feelings.

    我還要簡單提一下心理人類學,心理人類學研究人的性格和情感。

    These are greatly influenced by an individual's biological and mental characteristics as well as physical surroundings and personal experiences.

    這在很大程度上受個人的生理和心理特征以及物理環境和個人經歷的影響。

    Related subjects are psychology and psychiatry.

    相關學科有心理學和精神病學。

    And it is important to note that there are several universal features common among all societies, for example, the basic similarities in human biology and the existence of two sexes.

    值得注意的是,人類社會具有某些共性,比如,人類生理學的基本相似性和兩性的存在

    Another of these universal features is education--either formal or informal, or both.

    還有一個共性是教育——無論是正規還是非正規的,或者兩者兼而有之。

    Education is necessary to provide the young with the skills and attitudes needed to carry on as adults.

    教育是必要的,教育為年輕人提供成年后繼續生活所需的技能和態度。

    So, you might ask, what are the practical applications for such a broad field of anthropology?

    你可能會問,劃分為如此多領域的人類學有哪些實際應用?

    The answer is that anthropology helps us plan the future and helps us contribute to the solution of human problems.

    答案是,人類學可以幫助我們規劃未來,解決人類的問題。

    You know the newest area of the study of man is applied anthropology.

    人類研究的最新領域是應用人類學。

    Formerly, anthropology was limited to the academic field, and most anthropologists were teachers or museum curators.

    以前,人類學僅限于學術領域,大多數人類學家是教師或博物館館長。

    But for the past several decades, large numbers of "anthro" graduates have been employed in other fields, such as urban planning and administration, health care, and international development.

    但在過去的幾十年里,大量的“人類”畢業生在其他領域就業,如城市規劃和管理、醫療保健和國際發展。

    This shows that anthropology is not just in academic discipline, it has social and practical applications.

    這表明人類學不僅僅是一門學科,它還具有社會和實際應用。

    Okay, to wrap up, we have briefly talked about the definition, development, and the fields and branches of anthropology.

    好了,總結一下,我們已經簡單地談論了人類學的定義、發展以及人類學的領域和分支。

    I hope after today's lecture, you will understand that anthropology is not a scholarly field only.

    我希望今天的講座結束后,你們會明白人類學不僅僅是一個學術領域。

    What's more important is that although anthropologists have taken up the task of recording the processes and changes of cultures past and present, they also provide the necessary insights into where the human species is heading.

    更重要的是,雖然人類學家承擔了記錄過去和現在文化發展過程和變化的任務,但他們也為人類物種的發展方向提供了必要的見解。

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    urban ['ə:bən]

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    adj. 城市的,都市的

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    informal [in'fɔ:məl]

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    adj. 非正式的,不拘形式的

     
    characteristics [,kærəktə'ristiks]

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    n. 特性,特征;特質;特色(characteristi

     
    understand [.ʌndə'stænd]

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    vt. 理解,懂,聽說,獲悉,將 ... 理解為,認為<

     
    limited ['limitid]

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    adj. 有限的,被限制的
    動詞limit的過

     
    academic [.ækə'demik]

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    adj. 學術的,學院的,理論的
    n.

     
    contribute [kən'tribju:t]

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    vt. 捐助,投稿
    vi. 投稿,貢獻,是原因

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    social ['səuʃəl]

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    adj. 社會的,社交的
    n. 社交聚會

     
    environment [in'vaiərənmənt]

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    n. 環境,外界

     
    solution [sə'lu:ʃən]

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