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    《李爾王》揭示悲劇藝術的意義所在

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    Culture

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    This great stage of fools

    這滿是傻瓜的偌大舞臺

    Sir Kenneth Branagh’s bold production of "King Lear" makes the case for tragic art.

    肯尼思·布拉納爵士大膽突破的《李爾王》證明了悲劇藝術的意義所在。

    Murder on the television, agony on the radio; lies and hatred on the internet, plus snuff videos that you click on before realising your mistake.

    電視上的謀殺劇情,收音機上的痛苦故事,互聯網上的謊言和仇恨,還有你點開后才反應過來的下流視頻。

    The planet is a boiling cauldron in which you are the complacent frog.

    地球就像一個沸騰的大鍋,而你是身處其中但滿不在乎的一只青蛙。

    When the real world feels like a charnel house, why spend an evening and a chunk of cash watching bodies pile up on stage?

    當現實世界就像是一個停尸房,為什么還要花一晚上的時間和一大筆錢來看堆滿尸體的舞臺呢?

    And in “King Lear”, Shakespeare piles them high.

    在《李爾王》中,莎士比亞讓尸體高高堆起。

    “That’s but a trifle here,” a character says of another’s demise during the final die-in.

    “這只是一件小事”--眾多人物最后相繼死去,一個角色談起另一個角色的死亡時這樣說道。

    But the play—and Sir Kenneth Branagh’s ingenious new production in London—make a powerful case for subjecting yourself to tragic art, even at a time of surround-sound horror.

    但這部戲劇--以及肯尼思·布拉納爵士在倫敦上演的制作精巧的新版《李爾王》--有力地證明了為什么在有環繞立體聲恐怖片的時代,依然要讓自己置身悲劇藝術中。

    These days “King Lear” is performed less often than “Hamlet”, with its startlingly acute psychology, or “Othello” and “Macbeth”, with their overtly modern themes of race, misogyny and the corrupting effects of power.

    如今,《李爾王》的上演次數比《哈姆雷特》和《奧賽羅》《麥克白》少,《哈姆雷特》敏銳地刻畫了人物心理,《奧賽羅》《麥克白》則討論了種族、厭女癥、權力的腐敗等具有鮮明現代色彩的主題。

    Critics have frequently regarded “Lear” as a triumph of philosophical poetry but impractical as a play.

    評論家們經常認為《李爾王》是哲學詩歌的典范,但作為一部戲劇有些脫離實際。

    There is just too much of it, and too much in it: too many ideas and emotions, too many stories and, above all, too much desolation and despair.

    劇中包含的內容太多了,不忍卒讀:太多的想法和情感,太多的故事,最重要的是,還有太多的孤寂和絕望。

    The evil characters destroy one another, but they take the good down with them.

    邪惡的角色互相毀滅,并拉來善良的角色與他們陪葬。

    Love kills; man is nothing but a “poor, bare, forked animal”.

    愛是致命的,人只不過是一只“寒傖、赤裸的兩腳動物”。

    Throughout the 18th century this bleakness seemed so shocking, even immoral, that “Lear” was staged with a revised happy ending.

    在整個18世紀,這種陰暗色調如此令人震驚,甚至是不道德的,以至于《李爾王》在上演時被改成了大團圓結局。

    Audiences still struggle with emotional overload.

    如今觀眾仍不能適應劇中的沉重情感。

    A decade ago, at another vaunted production in London, people sniggered when they were meant to weep.

    十年前,在倫敦上演的另一版備受吹捧的《李爾王》中,當人們應該哭泣的時候,他們卻暗自發笑。

    Sir Kenneth, a British actor and director, stars in and directs the version that opened at the Wyndham’s Theatre on October 31st.

    肯尼思爵士是一位英國演員兼導演,他主演并執導了10月31日在溫德姆劇院上映的《李爾王》。

    (It goes to the Shed in New York in 2024.)

    (將于2024年于紐約“棚屋”藝術中心上演。)

    Part of his response to the play’s scale is to cut lots of it.

    肯尼思對該劇體量的處理方式是削減大量內容。

    Running with no interval for ice-cream and gossip, this is two hours of neat tragedy—set, boldly, in Neolithic Britain.

    其中沒有吃冰淇淋和聊八卦的休息時間,就是干凈利落的長達兩小時的悲劇--大膽地設定在新石器時代的英國。

    Wearing animal skins and wielding spears, the cast hulks around a stark set that recalls Stonehenge, their faces intermittently looming on the stones in un-Neolithic projections.

    演員們穿著獸皮、揮舞著長矛,腳步沉重地在一個巨石陣般的荒涼布景中行走,非新石器時代機器投影出石頭影像,他們的臉龐在其中若隱若現。

    Above them hangs an orb resembling both a planet and an eyeball, which sometimes seems to bleed.

    在演員們的上方懸掛著一個既像行星又像眼球的球體,有時看起來像是在流血。

    Here the power struggle that follows Lear’s division of his kingdom is less a clash of armies than a scrap for a bauble in the mud.

    在這個版本中,李爾王劃分王國之后的權力斗爭與其說是一場軍事沖突,不如說是為了爭奪小玩意兒而在泥地里打架。

    Yet the absence of pomp also makes the family drama at the story’s heart seem movingly intimate and familiar.

    然而,因為沒有華麗的場面,所以處于故事核心的家庭劇情顯得非常親密和熟悉。

    Captured by his foes, arms bound behind his back, Sir Kenneth’s Lear uses his beard to dry the tears of his beloved daughter Cordelia (Jessica Revell).

    肯尼思爵士飾演的李爾王被敵人俘虜,雙臂被綁在背后,他用胡須擦去了心愛的女兒考狄利婭(杰西卡·雷維爾飾)的眼淚。

    Soon he heaves her corpse onto the stage, howling in grief; this time, nobody laughed.

    很快,他把女兒的尸體抬到舞臺上,悲痛地怒吼著,這一次,沒有人發笑。

    They chuckled at other moments though, as Sir Kenneth judiciously keeps and hones the funny bits to help the philosophy go down.

    但觀眾們在其他時刻笑出了聲,肯尼思爵士明智地保留并打磨了劇中有趣的部分,讓人們更好地接受其中的哲學。

    It is not just the humour of absurdist madness and slapstick torment that hovers between pathos and ridicule, often called the “comedy of the grotesque”.

    在哀婉和譏笑之余不僅僅有荒誕瘋狂和打鬧戲弄帶來的幽默,這些通常被稱為“怪誕喜劇”。

    There is also the comedy of charismatic devilment and gullibility, of champion wordplay and some of Shakespeare’s most colourful insults.

    還有妙趣橫生的惡作劇和上當受騙、巧妙高級的文字游戲和莎士比亞最精彩的一些嬉笑怒罵。

    As for the purpose of tragedy: Edgar (Doug Colling) implies one as he drags his blind and suicidal father Gloucester (Joseph Kloska) across ancient Britain.

    至于悲劇的意義:愛德加(道格·科林飾)拉著他那雙目失明且一心求死的父親葛羅斯特(約瑟夫·克羅斯卡飾)穿行在古代英國時,暗示了其中一個意義。

    “Men must endure/Their going hence, even as their coming hither,” he preaches. “Ripeness is all.”

    “人必須忍受離開世間,如忍受來到世間?!睈鄣录诱f道,“成熟落地才是最終歸屬?!?/p>

    Life, in other words, is an endurance test.

    換句話說,人生就是一場耐力測試。

    It follows that, for viewers, tragic art is a kind of practice in grinning and bearing it.

    因此,對于觀眾來說,悲劇藝術就是一種苦笑著忍受磨難的練習。

    We have had quite enough practice in that, today’s punters may think; and a homily on stoicism makes a priggish sort of moral.

    現在的觀眾可能會認為,我們練習吃苦已經夠多了,這種斯多葛主義的說教是一種有些清高死板的教益。

    Edgar’s conclusion, however, is not the play’s.

    然而,愛德加的結論并不是該劇的結論。

    The rationale it offers for its spectacle of pain is more than a lesson in patience, more even than the sense of solidarity in suffering that acting as fine as Sir Kenneth’s can provide.

    這部劇呈現痛苦的理由不僅僅是教導人們要有耐心,甚至也不只是面對苦難時要相互扶持,肯尼思爵士精妙的演繹表明了這一點。

    “King Lear” is full of audiences: characters who witness folly, misery or cruelty and must choose what to do about them.

    《李爾王》中有很多觀眾:他們目睹了愚蠢、痛苦、殘忍,必須選擇如何應對這些。

    Some weigh their interests and join in.

    一些人權衡了自己的利益,并加入了進來。

    Some wring their hands.

    一些人扭著雙手不知所措。

    A few resist, such as the heroic servant who objects as Cornwall (a sinister Hughie O’Donnell) rips out Gloucester’s eyes in a spasm of bloodlust and impunity.

    還有一些人奮起反抗,比如那位英勇的仆人,當康華爾(邪惡版休吉·奧唐奈飾)忽然燃起了嗜血欲且無需為惡行受罰,因此挖去了葛羅斯特的雙眼時,仆人表示了反對。

    It is hard to imagine yourself as Lear, even one as denuded as Sir Kenneth’s.

    我們很難想象自己是李爾王,即使是像肯尼思爵士飾演的不加修飾的李爾王。

    But maybe you could, just about, be like the unheralded minor figures who opt to act instead of merely watching.

    但也許你可以像那些出其不意的小人物一樣,選擇采取行動,而不僅僅是袖手旁觀。

    “O, you are men of stones,” the king cries at the close, demanding greater compassion for injustice from the surviving characters—and from the audience, too.

    “啊,你們是鐵石心腸的人?!眹踉诮Y束時喊道,要求幸存的人物--以及觀眾--對遭受非正義的人表現出更大的同情。

    Don’t just sit there, the play urges. Do something.

    這出戲敦促人們,不要只是坐在那里,做些什么吧。

    重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
    champion ['tʃæmpjən]

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    n. 冠軍,優勝者,擁護者,勇士
    vt. 保衛

     
    acute [ə'kju:t]

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    adj. 敏銳的,劇烈的

     
    neolithic [.ni:ə'liθik]

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    adj. 新石器時代的

    聯想記憶
    triumph ['traiəmf]

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    n. 凱旋,歡欣
    vi. 得勝,成功,慶功

     
    endurance [in'djuərəns]

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    n. 忍耐,忍耐力,耐性

    聯想記憶
    director [di'rektə, dai'rektə]

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    n. 董事,經理,主管,指導者,導演

     
    stoicism ['stəuisizəm]

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    n. 禁欲主義,堅忍克己 Stoicism n. 斯多葛

     
    conclusion [kən'klu:ʒən]

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    n. 結論

     
    intimate ['intimeit,'intimit]

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    adj. 親密的,私人的,秘密的
    n. 密友<

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    agony ['ægəni]

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    n. 極度的痛苦,掙扎

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